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The following is an example of a reading comprehension passage that you would find on THE NURSING ENTRANCE TEST OR THE N.E.T.. The student who is sitting for the NURSING ENTRANCE TEST needs to remember that they must not bring any previous knowledge into answering the questions. The passage will be on a computer screen and the student must scroll through out the passage until finally arriving at the questions. Time yourself on the passage below.

Childhood behavioral disorders such as ADD and ADHD have been are on the rise. It is important for parents to realize that children are not fully developed with respect to their bone growth and metabolism as adults. Just as an expectant mother’s deficiency in folic acid can lead to defects in the newborns neural tube, so can metal ions and complex organic compounds cause damage to a child’s bones, liver, kidneys and neurotransmitters. Why should we as parents, educators and doctors treat the symptoms of the above mentioned disorders with more chemicals in the form of pills? It is interesting to look at what are some of the chemicals that go into foods that we consume regularly. Below is a list of some of the food additives taken from Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology, The Basic Science of Poisons, 4th Ed.,McGraw Hill copyright, 1991. Page 823.
Anti-caking Agents; Aluminum calcium silicate (sodium silicate and calcium silicates are desiccants that are found in tiny packages to adsorb moisture with the words written on the package, “Do not ingest”), Sodium Aluminosilicate;
Chemical Preservatives: Ascorbic acid, Ascorbyl palmitate, Butylated hydroxyanisole, Calcium propionate, dilauryl thiodipropionate, erythorbic acid, methylparaben (wax), potassium sorbate, propionic acid, proplyparaben, sodium bisulfate, sodium metabisulfate, sodium sulfite, stannos chloride (or Tin chloride), sulfur dioxide (one of the major air pollutants by EP), tocopherols.
Emulsifying Agents; Cholic acid, desoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid, mono-and diglycerides, propylene glycol(by the way, ethylene glycol is antifreeze, and propylene glycol is also used to de-ice planes) Aside, because of propylene glycols vast uses, it is worth noting how it is used, by the way it is also found in cake mixes. This excerpt is from; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propylene_glycol
• As a moisturizer in medicines, cosmetics, food, toothpaste, mouth wash, and tobacco products
• In electronic cigarettes to deliver vaporized nicotine
• As a medical and sexual lubricant (A.K.A. “personal lubricant”)
• As an emulsification agent in Angostura and orange bitters
• As a solvent for food colors and flavorings
• As a humectant food additive, labeled as E number E1520
• As a cooling agent for beer and wine glycol jacketed fermentation tanks
• As a carrier in fragrance oils
• As a less-toxic antifreeze
• As a solvent used in mixing photographic chemicals, such as film developers
• In smoke machines to make artificial smoke for use in firefighters’ training and theatrical productions
• In hand sanitizers, antibacterial lotions, and saline solutions
• In cryonics
• As a working fluid in hydraulic presses
• As a coolant in liquid cooling systems
• To regulate humidity in a cigar humidor
• As the killing and preserving agent in pitfall traps, usually used to capture ground beetles
• To treat livestock ketosis
• As the main ingredient in deodorant sticks.
• To de-ice aircraft.[4]
• UV Blacklite Tattoo Ink
Can anyone say, “mmm, yummy?”
Propylene glycol has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol, or MEG). (Note: propylene glycol may also use the acronym MEG, but as an abbreviation of methyl ethyl glycol.) The industrial norm is to replace ethylene glycol by propylene glycol.

(Also worth noting, is that if ethylene glycol or antifreeze is ingested by accident or other means, ingesting ethanol will competitively bind with the pre-metabolite and stop the conversion of ethylene glycol into formaldehyde and then into formic acid, and instead turn the metabolite into™ acetylaldehyde which is then metabolized into acetic acid and excreted by the kidneys since acetic acid is a charged molecule and can be taken in at the proximal tubules of the glomerular filtrate within the nephrons of the kidney.), To sum up, yes call the Poison Control Center, but a good dose of Jim Beam™ won’t hurt.
Ox-bile extract. We will leave this one for a later discussion.

Sequestrants; Calcium acetate, calcium gluconate, calcium phytate, dipotassium phosphate, disodium phosphate, monoisopropyl citrate, potassium citrate, sodium diacetate, sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium metaphosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium thiosulfate, stearyl citrate, tartaric acid, ethylinediaminetetraacetic acid or (EDTA).
Stabilizers: Acacia gum, agar-agar, calcium alginate, carob bean gum, ghatti gum, guar gum, sterculia or karaya gum

Miscllaneous additives; Acetic acid, adipic acid, aluminum potassium sulfate, ammonium bicarbonate, bentonite, butane, calcium gluconate, calcium hydroxide, calcium phosphate, carnauba wax, dextrans, ethyl formate, glutamic acid hydrochloride, glycerine, helium, hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, lecithin, magnesium hydroxide, malic acid, methylcellose, monopotassium glutamate, nitrogen, papain, phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide (as the main ingredient in household cleaners such as Oxyclean™, could also be sodium hydroxide), sodium pectinate, sodiumsequicarbonate, succinic acid, triacetine and triethyl citrate.
Synthetic Flavoring Substances;
Acetaldehyde, acetoin, benzaldehyde, d or l- carvone, cinnamaldehyde, decanal, ethyl butyrate, geraniol, geranyl acetate, limonene, linalool, methylanthranilate, piperonal, vanillin.
Now, if you don’t believe that the ingredients that you can’t say or spell are actually in your foods that you consume daily, let’s look at a jar of average Joe coffee creamer. Ready?
Vegetable oil
Partially hydrogenated palm kernel or coconut oil
Hydrogenated soybean oil
Corn syrup solids
Dipotassium phosphate
Sodium Aluminosilicate
Natural and ARTIFICIAL FLAVORS (which they don’t specify)and
Mono and di-glycerides
How about your average cheese corn snack food? Ready?
Cottonseed oil

Yellow 5
Yellow 6
Silicon dioxide
Disodium phosphate
Let’s not forget “Beef Tallow”’ or “Meat Tallow”, as soon as you read the word, “Tallow”, put it down. Tallow is just this, imagine a truck that picks up all the meat, bone, brains, fat, gristle from markets, and used oils from restaurants, puts all of this into a large vat, heats it up, adds some more fats and sells it to the large animal feed corporations as a food additive, and to manufactures of cakes and pies. I will not name names. Now, you remember reading about the “Crazy Cow” disease, or Mad Cow disease. This disease is technically termed, bovine spongiform encephalopathy when found in cows, and scrapie when found in sheep. Did you know that the United States cannot export any of its sheep? Why? Because most of all the sheep in the U.S. have the disease scrapie. Now, it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to understand that eating brains and feeding brains of meat eating animals to non meat eating animals might not be such a good idea. Since the brains of meat eating animals contains prions. Now these prions are viral, and do not hurt us when they are naturally occurring. However, when people start messing around and feeding animals food stuffs that these animals normally wouldn’t eat, (for instance, can you imagine a lamb viciously taking down a cow and tearing its throat out and eating its brains? Disturbing yes? Well leave it to the human race to feed to our gentle livestock TALLOW. Yes, prions are in tallow. You may not have heard of the, Crazy Sheep Disease, or scrapie, but now you have, and guess what? You even know what tallow is.
More to come from the book entitled, “Toxins in Our Lives, The Hidden Enemies”
All material is copyright and not printable without express permission of the author!
Next excerpt…….. food coloring and toxic metals.

[http://www.vaxa.com/library/add.cfmAccording to the Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Information Center, 3% to 10% of the U.S. population is affected with ADD and its many forms (ADHD/LD). As a result, an estimated 20 million children may be placed on activity-modifying drugs like Methylphenidate before the year 2000.]

Try some questions now based on the passage.
What is the authors main idea?
a. Food additives and generally all substances that we come in contact with on a daily basis are harmful
b. Only food additives have a physiological effect on the system.
c. There are too many chemicals in every product including foods that we eat.

What opinion does the author have regarding food additives?
a. They are bad for you
b. They do not serve to help the body
c. They can cause long term damage and embryogenic mutations.

If you would like to practice more problems and see your scores, just to to the Nurses Learning Center, where you will be able to practice on over 1300 questions and answers in test format. You will be able to keep track of your scores and pass the READING COMPREHENSION SECTION OF THE N.E.T. with high scores.

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