buy hypertropin

The NET, the HESI and the TEAS

Written by kimmel52 on October 23, 2009 – 5:50 pm

Hello Students;

Pass today

For all of you considering going to nursing school, you will probably be asked to take a pre-nursing entrance exam such as the NET, HESI or the TEAS.  There is another pre-nursing entrance exam entitled the ATT.  Which ever exam you are required  to take, you can feel confident that the book entitled, “Pass The NET, The First Time” will help you to pass with higher than national average scores.  The reading comprehension and math are treated in depth with many questions and fully explained answers.  In it you will also find Anatomy and Physiology, Chemistry, English Grammar and Biology questions, along with fully explained answers.  There is also a free downloadable software that comes free of charge, to give you hours and hours of practice.  The software requires that you have Micro Soft Power Point installed on your computer.  With this software you can take tests that are timed for one minute and get your scores as well as check your answers with fully explained solutions to all the problems.

Do you think that becoming a nurse is the right career choice for you, then get ready to take the N.E.T., the HESI or the TEAS entrance test. You can begin preparing for your career by practicing your skills using the online tutorials and tests at The Nurses Learning Center. For a small one time fee, you will have unlimited access to all the tests, which include Reading Comprehension, Math, Anatomy and Physiology , Chemistry, Biology and English Grammar. It is yours to keep. New questions are added daily. It’s like taking the actual test in the privacy of your home.
Best Wishes to all,

Nancy Kimmel RN PhD


Tags: , , ,
Posted in How to Pass the HESI | 1 Comment »

Don’t Stress the N.E.T, H.E.S.I. and TEAS

Written by kimmel52 on September 12, 2009 – 10:59 am

Don't Stress the N.E.T.

Are you ready to take the N.E.T., the HESI or the TEAS.  Even if you feel ready, you may not recognize the changes that your body is going through.   Many peoples futures are dependent on their performance on these exams.  It is no wonder that peoples stress levels are high.   Stress is the body’s way of preparing for an event.  Stress does not have to be a bad thing.  However, one has to learn how to handle stress without it taking control. For many of us, taking a  test causes a series of enzymatic cascades in our bodies. We begin to get sweaty palms, our heart rate goes up, we begin to breath faster, our pupils dilate, our muscles tense up, and if we continue to think about how frightened we are, we advance from a heightened state of alertness to one of panic. If this continues, then we cannot learn, study, or effectively interact with our peers or teachers. The proverbial panic before a test. This is very serious. Many very intelligent people cannot take tests. As the stakes go up so does the anxiety level. The biological sciences has taught us that as we become scared or threatened, our sympathetic nervous system is activated. This is done through a series of hormonal secretions from the adrenal glands that turn on various receptors and cause a cascade of biological changes in our system. The term, “fight or flight” has been used to describe the effects of fear or the sensing of danger in the human as well as mammalian species. Unfortunately for students, it is at work with each test. For some reason, there are those people that are calm during tests. You don’t even see their eyebrow raise. Then there are the ones who become so panicked that they could pass out. Some actually do. To begin to help those people who have test anxiety, it is first necessary for those people to find some quiet time and think about what it is that makes their vital signs go haywire, such as their blood pressure, heart rate and respiration. The answer will not be the same for everyone, but in solace it is easier to think. For those who have such dibilitating test anxiety the first question that they should ask themselves is when do they remember first having their test anxiety attack. It would not be surprising if many find that they must go way back in their memory to some point in grade school or kindergarten. Childhood memories of being humiliated in the classroom or at home, by overbearning teachers over expecting parents can cause a lot of mental damage to children. If this damage is never therapeutically processed, then as these children grow up, they find that those same feelings keep recurring during stressful or similar circumstances. Therefore, anxious test takers must confront and identify why they feel the way that they do. Once they have done that, then the next step is to identify how to not feel that way. Finding stress and anxiety release valves in ourselfs is about the most powerful endorphine we have. Because once you can unlock your own stress relief abilities, then you are on the way to successful test taking. It is a misnomer to think that just becasue someone gets a bad grade on a test they didn’t study. It is quite the contrary with those whom have test anxiety. These people study for hours. They know the material backwards and forwards. However, when it comes to performing in a environment that is not comfortable, unfamiliar, or threatening, these people are unable to recapture all of the information that they have learned. So, it would be a good idea for test takers to get to know the area where they are going to take their tests. Go down to the testing room, ask if you can look around and get a feel for where you are going to be spending three hours or more. Let the supervisor or teacher know that you are one of those people with test anxiety and that familiarizing yourself with your surroundings will help you to perform better on the test. The next thing that anxious test takers should do is to make mock tests and take them to public places and practice taking them. Confidence is built in small steps, but little by little even the most anxious test takers can overcome their fear.  To begin studying now and begin to ease some of the stress go to Nurses Learning Center and get immediate access to online tests simulated like the actual N.E.T., HESI and TEAS.
Best Wishes to all,
Nancy Kimmel


Tags: , , ,
Posted in Test Anxiety | 2 Comments »

Reading Comprehension Tutorials for the Nursing Entrance Test that WORK!

Written by kimmel52 on September 7, 2009 – 10:42 pm

WE HELP PREPARE YOU WITH THE MOST UP TO DATE MATERIALS

We Help Prepare You with the Most Up To Date Materials

Pass The N.E.T. Reading Comprehension Includes over 140 pages of challenging science based essays with questions and completely and thoroughly explained reasoning.
Delivered immediately in PDF format.
Price: $15.99


Tags: , , ,
Posted in HESI TEAS The NET ATT, How to Pass the HESI, Pass The Nursing Entrance Test, Reading Comprehension, Reading Comprehension Exerpt NET Practice Test | 5 Comments »

Dietary Needs of the Diabetic Patient

Written by kimmel52 on November 11, 2008 – 10:52 pm

The diabetic patient can help control their blood glucose levels in conjunction with a healthy diet. Not only can they help to control their blood glucose levels with a healthy diet, but their lipids and blood pressure as well. Nutrition recommendations are developed from the following table:

Carbohydrates: /diabetics should choose from a selection of grains, fruits and vegetables. Fruits such as apricots, peaches, mangos, are high in vitamin C and have are a good source of roughage. Grains such as oats, wheat and barley are excellent choices. Having hot cereal like wheat and barley can be a real treat, especially when using Splenda® as a sugar substitute, and a small amount of butter. These carbohydrates are broken down gradually and stored in the liver. They are turned into glucose upon the bodies need at the moment.

Sweetners:/ It is best to avoid processed sweets, such as cakes, doughnuts, cookies and soda pop. Processed sweets and carbonated beverages contain large amounts of preservatives and sodium. The saying, “where sodium goes, water follows.”, is a good saying to keep in mind. What this means, is that the more sodium that is ingested, the more water the body will retain. Water retention leads to high blood pressure and increased pressure in the glomerular tubules within the kidney. As pressure builds up in this area, stage two of kidney disease can occur. It is difficult for those diabetics who are used to drinking sugar free soda. Try to break this habit. The main idea about dietary changes is that it is not a quick fix, but a life style change. The diabetic has to change their way of thinking about the foods that they normally eat. Use sweeteners judiciously. The best alternative is to become used to the taste of natural sugars, and to avoid sodium. Try not using salt for a few days. It is not hard to get accustomed to this. The diabetic will be able to taste the natural salt in their food without adding any extra salt.

Fats:/ Try to keep the fat content in the diet as low as possible. Trim the fat from meat prior to cooking. Braising the meat prior to adding water can eliminate extra fat left on the meat and add flavor to the broth. Read the labels of foods when purchasing groceries. Fat content will increase the diabetic’s blood glucose level, because ingested fat will stay in the system longer. Similar to fast digesting sugars, fat offers up lots of carbohydrates. These carbohydrates can be turned into sugars readily. Before the stored carbohydrates are broken down the body will use the undigested fat molecules. If the person is not active to burn calories, the fat will sit around and what ever portion is not used, the body will store. To explain this theory better, think about oil candles. The oil will burn for hours before being used up. Now imagine cotton candy. Cotton candy will flame and burn to a crisp with practically nothing left within seconds. This is how our body uses fats and sugars. When the body needs glucose, glycogen stored in the liver is enzymatically transformed into glucagon, which is transformed into glucose to feed our body from burning ATP (the body’s energy molecule). When all of the glucose is used up, the body begins to use up carbohydrates, and after the carbohydrates the body then burns fat. Once the fat is burned, the body begins to utilize protein. This protein can be found in the urine, and is a signal of malnutrition. Knowing what fats are good and which are bad can be very confusing. The best rule of thumb is to avoid processed foods and use meats that are not fatty or marbled with fat throughout. Bake, broil or boil foods. Braise meats in a pan after trimming the fat. Use seasonings without added salt. Using pure seasonings is a fantastic tasting experience. Fresh rosemary, thyme, oregano, and a host of other seasonings can add wonderful flavor to a meal. Use olive oil in place of the usual cooking oils. Some olive oils state that they are half corn oil and half olive. This is better than using 100% corn oil or canola oil. Try using fresh ground pepper and garlic cloves in place of salt additives. Keep in mind that you are what you eat, as the saying goes. Being healthy should be the most important goal of not only diabetics but for everyone.

If you have the desire to go into nursing, then you must first get ready to take the N.E.T., the HESI or the TEAS entrance test. You can begin preparing for your career by practicing your skills using the online tutorials and tests at The Nurses Learning Center. There are over 1000 questions and answers. You will get unlimited internet access, 24/7. It is yours to keep. New questions are added daily. It’s like sitting for the N.E.T., The HESI or the TEAS in your home.


Tags: , , ,
Posted in Diabetic Diet, Diabetic Patient Teaching | No Comments »

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Written by kimmel52 on November 11, 2008 – 10:50 pm

When the individual’s blood sugar gets very high and they are profoundly deficient in insulin, the body becomes unable to utilize blood sugar efficiently. The body then begins to burn fat stores for food. As these fat stores are burned, a by product is released called Ketones. It is ketones that are responsible for lowering the body’s pH level below 7.35. Metabolic acidosis occurs when the pH of the body drops below 7.35. The body attempts to excrete the ketones via the kidneys, causing ketones to be released in the urine, a term called ketonuria. However along with the negative ketones, the body’s positively charged electrolytes are also excreted. This leads to an electrolyte imbalance. The body continues to burn other glucose stores in the body such as proteins, causing nitrogen losses.

Now the body has depletion in electrolytes. This can cause nausea and vomiting, depleting more electrolytes. The individual is now in a severe hyperglycemic state and is hypovolemic as well. If these conditions are left untreated, the person can go into hypovolemic shock, become comatose and die.

Outward signs and symptoms of DKA include the following; eyeballs are soft and appear sunken, skin turgor is poor, (Dehydration of tissues can be tested by pinching the skin fold on the sternum. If the skin stays in one place or does not loose its shape rapidly, then dehydration can be assumed.), the person is very pale, cold, clammy, and exhibits deep rapid respirations, an effort the body makes to eliminate excess carbon dioxide. The individual may also exhibit severe abdominal pain and tachycardia, (heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute.) Diagnostic laboratory findings from arterial blood gases would indicate a pH less than 7.35, blood glucose level greater than 250 mg/dL, serum bicarbonate level less than 15 mEq/L, as well as ketones in the urine.

Interventions must be immediate to prevent irreversible destruction to the body’s organs and prevent coma or death. Ensure a patent airway, and begin to administer oxygen via nasal cannula or mask. Establish an intravenous access with a large bore needle (18 to 20 gauge). Begin fluid stabilization with 0.9 Normal Saline. This is an isotonic fluid, compatible with the body’s pH. The purpose of using an isotonic infusion initially is to re-establish blood pressure which was low and to increase urinary out put to 30-60ml/hr. When urinary output is less than 30 ml/hr, kidney failure can rapidly occur. Fluids should continue for one hour or until stabilization occurs. Next begin insulin infusion with a drip rate or 0.1U/kg/hr. During this time it is important to monitor the person’s vital signs every fifteen minutes until stable or for at least one hours after treatment begins. If necessary, potassium should be administered to correct for hypokalemia, and sodium bicarbonate to correct for metabolic acidosis, if the pH is less than 7.0. The person should also have electrocardiogram leads placed on chest to monitor heart rhythms.

When the diabetic is at home and feels these bodily signs and symptoms beginning to occur, they should take the following steps; call 911, check their blood sugar, administer insulin per sliding scale, drink an electrolytic fluid, (i.e., sports fluids), breath into a paper bag, use oxygen if available, lie down, raise feet level with the heart and wait for the ambulance.

Preventative measures to avoid DKA include consistent control of blood sugar with administration of insulin per protocol. The diabetic should avoid too much food intake, and avoid taking too much or too little insulin. Stressful life situations can also cause elevations in glucose levels. Therefore the diabetic should prepare to check their blood sugar more often during times of stress and administer insulin as prescribed.

Understanding the complications of diabetes can help the diabetic take the necessary actions to prevent DKA from occurring and help them live a healthy life.

References:

  1. Lewis, Heiitkemper, Dirkesen, Medical Surgical Nursing 6th ed., Copyright 2006, Mosby, St. Louis., pages 1273 -1278.
  2. www.defeatdiabetes.org/support_groups
  3. www.accu-chek.com
  4. www.Type2Diabetes-Info.com
  5. www.ChildrensDiabetesFdn.org
  6. www.diabetesinmichigan.org
  7. www.diabetesmonitor.com

If you have the desire to go into nursing, then you must first get ready to take the N.E.T., the HESI or the TEAS entrance test. You can begin preparing for your career by practicing your skills using the online tutorials and tests at The Nurses Learning Center. There are over 1000 questions and answers. You will get unlimited internet access, 24/7. It is yours to keep. New questions are added daily. It’s like sitting for the N.E.T., The HESI or the TEAS in your home.


Tags: , , ,
Posted in Diabetic Ketoacidosis | No Comments »

Diabetes and Heart Disease

Written by kimmel52 on November 11, 2008 – 10:47 pm

Diabetes can be a real threat to the cardiovascular system. It comes on slowly and can wreak havoc with the bodies systems before the individual knows that they even have diabetes. Diabetes can cause harm not only to the cardiovascular system but the eyes, the nerves, the kidneys, and impede the healing process. A clinical sign that someone may have diabetes is that they may have a difficult time healing from the slightest of skin injuries. People that have diabetes are at a two to four fold increase to developing heart disease or having a stroke. The advantage that pre-menopausal women have over men is diminished when they have diabetes. (1)

According to Christopher Saudek, M.D professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimoore and past president of The American diabetes Association (ADA)., “having diabetes is such a strong risk factor for heart disease that it’s equivalent to already having had a heart attack,” Just why diabetes causes heart disease on such a destructive is unknown. Dr. Robert H. Eckel, M.K., professor of medicine at the University of Colorado Denver and past president of the American Heart Association., say “It’s a complicated connection”.

From a physics standpoint, it can be seen that the heart is muscle and one that is reposonispible for pumping blood to the entire body. Since muscles need glucose to move and expend energy, it can be inferred what when there is a problem with he functioning of glucose iin the body, there will also be a problem with the heart as well.

There are those people that are insulin resistant. This implies that their bodies do not respond to insulin like other people. Insulin is responsible for putting sugar or glucose back into the cells instead of having it run rampant throughout the system. “insulin resistance leads to vascular dysfunction, which indicate that there is an altering of the function of the blood vessels to respond normally to the bodies hormonal signals that tell veins to expand and or contract., notes, David M. Nathan, M.D. , professor medicine at Harvard Medical School and director of the Massachusetts general hospital Diabetes Center. “It also leads to systemic, inflammation, as measured by levels of C=reactive protein and inflammatory cytokines. In this scenario, when type 2 diabetes develops there is a system of cascading events that effects many systems and causing such untoward effects such as high blood pressure, kidney disease, and heart disease.

Given as such wide spread evidence on the effects of diabetes on the cardiovascular system and other body functions, the reality of taking precautionary health measures becomes important. An estimated two out of every three adults with diabetes have hypertension. Diabetic dyslipidemia requires frequent blood work so that the individual knows what their levels of good cholesterol (LDL) and bad cholesterol (HDL) are. When the two are out of sync, a condition called atherosclerotic heat disease can occur. These people are usually candidates for heart bypass surgery, since their arteries become clogged.

In summary, those people with diabetes should take an active role in controlling their disease process. They can do this by getting regular fasting blood glucose levels and having their HDL and LDL tested. Normal values of these cholesterol levels are as follows; total cholesterol should be under 200; LDL under 200 and HDL above 50 for women, 40 for men, and triglycerides below 150. if you’re LDL, HDL and triglyceride levels are also at desirable levels and you have no other risk factors for heart disease, total blood cholesterol below 200 mg/dL puts you at relatively low risk of coronary heart disease. Even with a low risk, however, it’s still smart to eat a health diet, avoid tobacco smoke and try to exercise daily… Have your cholesterol levels checked every five years or as your doctor recommends, and get regular fasting blood glucose levels. This preventative health maintenance should help increase your lifespan and provide many healthy and fulfilling years.

If you have the desire to go into nursing, then you must first get ready to take the N.E.T., the HESI or the TEAS entrance test. You can begin preparing for your career by practicing your skills using the online tutorials and tests at The Nurses Learning Center. There are over 1000 questions and answers. You will get unlimited internet access, 24/7. It is yours to keep. New questions are added daily. It’s like sitting for the N.E.T., The HESI or the TEAS in your home.


Tags: , ,
Posted in Diabetes and Heart Disease | No Comments »

Hyperkalemia

Written by kimmel52 on November 11, 2008 – 10:41 am

Electrolyte imbalances within the body can occur in response to many factors. When a person is dehydrated either from sickness or starvation, their electrolytes can become depleted. Certain medications can cause electrolyte imbalances as well as chronic diseases such as diabetes and renal failure. Electrolytes have a large role in balancing all metabolic reactions related to the delicate pH balance of the body, which is 7.35-7.45. Within this limited pH range all metabolic reactions can go to completion. For instance ATP can be released and produced, muscle contractions occur in simple or complex body movements, our thinking processes and those muscle contractions not in conscious control such as our beating heart and peristalsis of the bowel. When a particular electrolyte is either in to great or too small a concentration the pH of the body responds in kind to correct the imbalance by pulling from other sources in the body. When this happens the person begins to have symptoms that something is wrong. Sometimes the symptoms are barely noticeable while other times the person must be immediately hospitalized in intensive care. Hyperkalemia deals with an electrolyte imbalance in which there is too much potassium or (K+) in the body. When the serum potassium levels rise above 5.3 mEq/L or the blood pH drops below 7.35 the person is considered to be in a state of hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia is diagnosed in up to 8% of hospitalized patients. Death can be as high as 67% if severe hyperkalemia is not treated quickly. Drugs are an underlying cause in 75% of inpatient cases. Some of the causes of hypekalemia can be seen in the table below;

Decreased Excretion

Excessive Ingestion

Interstitial Fluid Shift

Renal Failure (creatinine <10mL/min

Rapid IV infusion

Metabolic acidosis

Use of potassium sparing diuretics

Potassium supplements

Diabetic Ketoacidosis, K+ moves out into blood stream

Decreased aldosterone secretion

Metabolic acidosis

Anti hypertensives such as Beta Blocker and ACE Inhibitors

Signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia include muscle cramps, weakness in the lower extremities, nausea, diarrhea, low blood pressure, bradycardia, and an abnormal electrocardiogram. It is important to carefully monitor the elderly and small children for hyperkalemia. Normal occurrences like diarrhea and vomiting can be life threatening to infants and the elderly. This is due to the lack of fluids within them prior to the occurrence. Therefore careful observation for the above signs and symptoms can save a life. The first step in treatment is to determine whether life threatening cardiac toxicity is present and treat if required. Treatment is based on eliminating or decreasing potassium intake, shifting potassium form the ECF to the ICF, and improving renal and gastrointestinal potassium excretion. With cardiac arrhythmias or changes in the ECG, IV calcium gluconate is given first, then insulin or sodium bicarbonate is administered. If output does not exceed greater than 30 mL per hour then dialysis is usually started.

ECG abnormalities from hyperkalemia related to the P wave include either a low amplitude or wide and flattened to non discernible in severe states. The PR interval may be normal or prolonged, or not measurable if there is no P wave. The QRS complex is widened, and the T wave is tall and peaked. The QT interval is shortened and the ST segment may be elevated.

References

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ECG Interpretation an Incredibly Easy Pocket Guide., copyright 2006

Macklin, Murphy-Ende., Saunders Nursing Survival Guide Fluids and Electrolytes, Copyright 2006, Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis Missouri

If you have the desire to go into nursing, then you must first get ready to take the N.E.T., the HESI or the TEAS entrance test. You can begin preparing for your career by practicing your skills using the online tutorials and tests at The Nurses Learning Center. There are over 1000 questions and answers. You will get unlimited internet access, 24/7. It is yours to keep. New questions are added daily. It’s like sitting for the N.E.T., The HESI or the TEAS in your home.


Tags: , , ,
Posted in Hyperkalemia | No Comments »

Nursing Term Paper Example, Psychopathology Paper 3

Written by kimmel52 on November 8, 2008 – 5:45 am

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 Psychopathology Paper 3 H.F.C.C. Psychiatric Nursing 150 By Nancy Taji Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 Definition of Medical Diagnosis: Alcoholism in this case scenario is characterized by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence. To qualify for a diagnosis of substance dependence there must be at least three of the following criteria met within a twelve month period. 1. Presence of tolerance of the drug. 2. Presence of withdrawal syndrome. 3. Substance is taken in larger amounts for longer periods than intended. 4. Unsuccessful or persistent desire to cut down or to control use. 5. Increased time spent in getting, taking and recovering from the substance. 6. Reduction or absence of important social, occupational or recreational activities. 7. Substance used despite knowledge of recurrent physical or psychological problems. (DSM-IV-TR, APA, American Psychiatric Society 2000) Alcohol related disorders such as alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal and substance induced delirium are also associated with the diagnosis of alcoholism. Psychodynamics: The psychodynamics of alcoholism are multifactorial. Alcoholism touches everyone in one way or another. It has been around since mankind first invented alcohol. The early original schools of Freudian psychology thought alcoholism to be a learned response that eventually became a habit. This school of thought was called nurture, or the environment. As science progressed throughout the century, alcoholism Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 was viewed as a genetic defect, or occurring due to nature. Presently theorist view alcoholism as arising out of epigenetic causes. In other words nature and nurture combined. Basically this theory places importance on genes as well as environment. In any case alcoholism is considered a disease. It is a disease that robs those who are affected by it of their lives, their families and their futures. Alcoholism can turn a mild man into a wife beater and a child molester, and can turn a women into a wonton harlot. It devastates the lives of all whom it touches. (Varcarolis, 2002) Case Presentation: The client is a 45 year old Caucasian female who appears her stated age. She was admitted to the hospital with the following symptoms of slurred speech, unsteady gait, dehydration and a disheveled appearance along with strong fumes of alcohol emanating from her breath. The client was one week post admission upon this case study. Her appearance was that of a graciously mannered, well groomed lady. Her hair was in a meticulous braid, and she wore a loose fitting sweatshirt and stretch pants. She carried her self with an air of self confidence and met her eyes directly with the person that was talking to her. Her eyes were bright and clear. She spoke in a even toned voice depicting appropriated expressions of joy or sorrow when the conversation warranted. She stated that she has had an addiction to alcohol for the past twenty years. She expressed concern that her liver may now be damaged and that her doctor had ordered some liver tests to be run. She explained in detail about her life and the tragedies that she had to face beginning at a young age, with the death of her boyfriend at the wheel of the car that she was also in, and the sexual abuse by her alcoholic father. She Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 was able to talk about these past experiences calmly. She went on to explain that she would binge drink on the weekends and eventually wind up drinking throughout the week to simply keep the hangovers at bay. Consequently, she would always loose her job. She did say that she did very well for a time as a manager for an apartment complex. When asked what attributes she like about herself she could not describe any. She stated that she didn’t really like herself and had tried to commit suicide on several occasions using prescription pills and alcohol. Evidently, she had recently been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. She stated that the medication that she was on helped her keep her moods steady. She stated that the depressive mood was totally exhausting and that it was impossible to function. She thought that her late father may have also suffered from a bipolar disorder. When asked about her family, she replied that her sister who was 7 years her junior was also an alcoholic as was her mother. She wanted to remain in the hospital for a few more days although her doctor was going to release her. She stated that she needed to start taking care of herself and that realizing that she needs help is a positive step. She said that she may not have asked to stay for further treatment if she hadn’t restructured her thoughts about herself. Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 Table 1 Textbook Characteristics of Alcoholism versus Client Characteristics Observed Textbook Characteristics of Alcoholism 1. Presence of tolerance to the drug 2. Presence of withdrawal syndrome. 3. Substance is taken in larger amounts for longer period. 4. Increased time spent in getting taking and recovering. 5. Incapacitated from social, family and occupational events due to substance 6. Using substance despite knowledge of its harm. (Varcarolis, 2002) Characteristics Observed in Client 1. Client states that she must drink large amounts of beer and whiskey 2. Client states that without the alcohol she has tremors and is on Antabuse. 3. Client states that she has been drinking for over twenty years. 4. Client says that her binge drinking on weekends spills over into the weekdays. 5. She states that while she is drinking she is incapacitated from all family, social and occupational functions. 6. Client acknowledges harm of the substance yet continues to use it. Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Table 2 Nursing Interventions for Client 1. Tolerance to alcohol: Client will attend group therapy and acknowledge to refrain from drinking. 2. Withdrawal symptoms: Client will remain hydrated with fluids that contain electrolytes and take vitamin B. 3. Larger Amounts for Longer Periods: Client will participate in cognitive restructuring to identify positive strengths and build self confidence. 4. Unsuccessful to cut down or control use: Client will participate in Alcoholics Anonymous. 5. Increased time in obtaining and recovering from substance: Client will work with therapy and counseling to cognitively restructure life style. 6. Reduction and absence from activities: Client will engage in recreational and occupational therapy. 7. Substance used despite knowledge of harm: Client will refrain from the use of alcohol and verbalize harm, possible using biofeedback as a tool. (Varcarolis, 2002) Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 Table 3 Medical Interventions Medical Interventions Suggested for Alcoholism 1. Anti Alcohol drug 2. Anti anxiety medication 3. Vitamins and fluids 4. Group Therapy 5. Family Therapy 6. Alcoholics Anonymous 7. Rest (Varcarolis, 2002) Medical Interventions Implemented for Client 1. Antabuse 2. Halcyon 0.25mg P.O. at 2400 3. Dosages of Thiamine and I.V. of D5/lactated ringers 4. Client attends Group therapy 5. Client attends family therapy 6. Attends Alcoholics Anonymous 7. Client is convalescing in hospital (Clients Chart) Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 References Varcarolis, E. (2002). Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing. (4th ed.) New York, N.Y., Saunders
If you have the desire to go into nursing, then you must first get ready to take the N.E.T., the HESI or the TEAS entrance test. You can begin preparing for your career by practicing your skills using the online tutorials and tests at The Nurses Learning Center. There are over 1000 questions and answers. You will get unlimited internet access, 24/7. It is yours to keep. New questions are added daily. It’s like sitting for the N.E.T., The HESI or the TEAS in your home.


Tags: , , ,
Posted in Nursing Education, Psychopathology Paper | No Comments »