human choroinic gonadotropin

Nursing Term Paper Example, Psychopathology Paper 3

Written by kimmel52 on November 8, 2008 – 5:45 am

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 Psychopathology Paper 3 H.F.C.C. Psychiatric Nursing 150 By Nancy Taji Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 Definition of Medical Diagnosis: Alcoholism in this case scenario is characterized by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence. To qualify for a diagnosis of substance dependence there must be at least three of the following criteria met within a twelve month period. 1. Presence of tolerance of the drug. 2. Presence of withdrawal syndrome. 3. Substance is taken in larger amounts for longer periods than intended. 4. Unsuccessful or persistent desire to cut down or to control use. 5. Increased time spent in getting, taking and recovering from the substance. 6. Reduction or absence of important social, occupational or recreational activities. 7. Substance used despite knowledge of recurrent physical or psychological problems. (DSM-IV-TR, APA, American Psychiatric Society 2000) Alcohol related disorders such as alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal and substance induced delirium are also associated with the diagnosis of alcoholism. Psychodynamics: The psychodynamics of alcoholism are multifactorial. Alcoholism touches everyone in one way or another. It has been around since mankind first invented alcohol. The early original schools of Freudian psychology thought alcoholism to be a learned response that eventually became a habit. This school of thought was called nurture, or the environment. As science progressed throughout the century, alcoholism Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 was viewed as a genetic defect, or occurring due to nature. Presently theorist view alcoholism as arising out of epigenetic causes. In other words nature and nurture combined. Basically this theory places importance on genes as well as environment. In any case alcoholism is considered a disease. It is a disease that robs those who are affected by it of their lives, their families and their futures. Alcoholism can turn a mild man into a wife beater and a child molester, and can turn a women into a wonton harlot. It devastates the lives of all whom it touches. (Varcarolis, 2002) Case Presentation: The client is a 45 year old Caucasian female who appears her stated age. She was admitted to the hospital with the following symptoms of slurred speech, unsteady gait, dehydration and a disheveled appearance along with strong fumes of alcohol emanating from her breath. The client was one week post admission upon this case study. Her appearance was that of a graciously mannered, well groomed lady. Her hair was in a meticulous braid, and she wore a loose fitting sweatshirt and stretch pants. She carried her self with an air of self confidence and met her eyes directly with the person that was talking to her. Her eyes were bright and clear. She spoke in a even toned voice depicting appropriated expressions of joy or sorrow when the conversation warranted. She stated that she has had an addiction to alcohol for the past twenty years. She expressed concern that her liver may now be damaged and that her doctor had ordered some liver tests to be run. She explained in detail about her life and the tragedies that she had to face beginning at a young age, with the death of her boyfriend at the wheel of the car that she was also in, and the sexual abuse by her alcoholic father. She Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 was able to talk about these past experiences calmly. She went on to explain that she would binge drink on the weekends and eventually wind up drinking throughout the week to simply keep the hangovers at bay. Consequently, she would always loose her job. She did say that she did very well for a time as a manager for an apartment complex. When asked what attributes she like about herself she could not describe any. She stated that she didn’t really like herself and had tried to commit suicide on several occasions using prescription pills and alcohol. Evidently, she had recently been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. She stated that the medication that she was on helped her keep her moods steady. She stated that the depressive mood was totally exhausting and that it was impossible to function. She thought that her late father may have also suffered from a bipolar disorder. When asked about her family, she replied that her sister who was 7 years her junior was also an alcoholic as was her mother. She wanted to remain in the hospital for a few more days although her doctor was going to release her. She stated that she needed to start taking care of herself and that realizing that she needs help is a positive step. She said that she may not have asked to stay for further treatment if she hadn’t restructured her thoughts about herself. Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 Table 1 Textbook Characteristics of Alcoholism versus Client Characteristics Observed Textbook Characteristics of Alcoholism 1. Presence of tolerance to the drug 2. Presence of withdrawal syndrome. 3. Substance is taken in larger amounts for longer period. 4. Increased time spent in getting taking and recovering. 5. Incapacitated from social, family and occupational events due to substance 6. Using substance despite knowledge of its harm. (Varcarolis, 2002) Characteristics Observed in Client 1. Client states that she must drink large amounts of beer and whiskey 2. Client states that without the alcohol she has tremors and is on Antabuse. 3. Client states that she has been drinking for over twenty years. 4. Client says that her binge drinking on weekends spills over into the weekdays. 5. She states that while she is drinking she is incapacitated from all family, social and occupational functions. 6. Client acknowledges harm of the substance yet continues to use it. Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Table 2 Nursing Interventions for Client 1. Tolerance to alcohol: Client will attend group therapy and acknowledge to refrain from drinking. 2. Withdrawal symptoms: Client will remain hydrated with fluids that contain electrolytes and take vitamin B. 3. Larger Amounts for Longer Periods: Client will participate in cognitive restructuring to identify positive strengths and build self confidence. 4. Unsuccessful to cut down or control use: Client will participate in Alcoholics Anonymous. 5. Increased time in obtaining and recovering from substance: Client will work with therapy and counseling to cognitively restructure life style. 6. Reduction and absence from activities: Client will engage in recreational and occupational therapy. 7. Substance used despite knowledge of harm: Client will refrain from the use of alcohol and verbalize harm, possible using biofeedback as a tool. (Varcarolis, 2002) Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 Table 3 Medical Interventions Medical Interventions Suggested for Alcoholism 1. Anti Alcohol drug 2. Anti anxiety medication 3. Vitamins and fluids 4. Group Therapy 5. Family Therapy 6. Alcoholics Anonymous 7. Rest (Varcarolis, 2002) Medical Interventions Implemented for Client 1. Antabuse 2. Halcyon 0.25mg P.O. at 2400 3. Dosages of Thiamine and I.V. of D5/lactated ringers 4. Client attends Group therapy 5. Client attends family therapy 6. Attends Alcoholics Anonymous 7. Client is convalescing in hospital (Clients Chart) Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 3 References Varcarolis, E. (2002). Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing. (4th ed.) New York, N.Y., Saunders
If you have the desire to go into nursing, then you must first get ready to take the N.E.T., the HESI or the TEAS entrance test. You can begin preparing for your career by practicing your skills using the online tutorials and tests at The Nurses Learning Center. There are over 1000 questions and answers. You will get unlimited internet access, 24/7. It is yours to keep. New questions are added daily. It’s like sitting for the N.E.T., The HESI or the TEAS in your home.


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Psychopathology Paper

Written by kimmel52 on November 8, 2008 – 5:42 am

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 2

Psychopathology Paper 2
H.F.C.C. Psychiatric Nursing 150
By Nancy Taji

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 2
Definition of Medical Diagnosis: According to the DSM-IV-TR, the criteria for Schizophrenia can be summed up as follows:
Two or more of the following symptoms during a one month period, such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech,
Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior and negative symptoms such as affective flattening, avolition and or alogia. In regards
to personal, interpersonal/social and self care, the client falls short of being able to maintain normal functioning. The duration of
the illness persists for at least six months with at least one month that meets the positive symptoms of the disease. (Varcarolis,
2002, p. 529)
“Schizophrenia is a devastating disease of the brain that affects a person’s thinking, language, emotions, social behavior and ability to accurately perceive reality.” (Varcarolis, 2002, p. 524)
Psychodynamics: The psychodynamics of the disease process can be classified using the four A’s. The four A’s are:
1. Affect, usually blunted or inappropriate and or bizarre.
2. Associative looseness, which refers to a incoherent stringing together of words that have no meaning.
3. Autism, refers to the world in which the person lives in within their head. It is an imaginary world that only they live in and sometimes respond to with speaking to inner voices. This is referred as responding to internal stimuli.
4. Ambivalence, is the polarization of feelings coexisting within the individual. Such as holding love and hate simultaneously and not being able to express either. This can be paralyzing for the individual. They usually withdraw and can become catatonic. (Varcarolis, 2002, p. 526)
Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 2
Generally the disease has been found to be genetically transmitted and there have been abnormal findings on PET scans. Some of the abnormal findings include frontal lobe inactivity, cortical enlargement and well as third ventrical enlargement. With later onset of positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations the prognosis seems to respond with greater success to medications than with a earlier onset of the negative symptoms such as Autism. As the case in any disease, the symptoms are treated for life, since there is no cure at the present time. The drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia are termed antipsychotics of which there are the typical and atypical variety. Currently the atypical variety treat the positive as well as the negative symptoms of the disease but without as drastic extrapyramidal side effects as the typicals.
Case Presentation: The client is a male Caucasian in his early thirties. He was dressed in a red sweatshirt and jogging pants. He was well groomed. He displayed a crew cut and was clean shaven. His nails appeared appropriately short and clean. The client expressed great sorrow as he explained how he was involved in an accident in which a child on a bike was killed. He spoke in depth about the deaths he had seen in his life. His expression was appropriate. He did not display any signs or symptoms of schizophrenia. He explained that he was on prolixin, and this atypical antipsychotic kept the voices away. The client explained that he had been hearing voices for many years and that he had used and currently uses alcohol when the voices wouldn’t go away. He stated that the voices consisted of the devil, although the voice would not identify himself as such, but the client said he knew it was him, a little boy and a women. He said that the voices tell him that he is next to die, and that they are more audible at night than in the daytime. He stated that he was able to hold down a successful job as a brick
Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 2
layer, married and fathered two children. However, the marriage ended in divorce and the wife took the children to Texas. He has not seen his children for a while and expressed a great desire to be reunited with them. The client stated that he was afraid to get close to anyone for fear that something bad would happen to them. He stated that he felt free of the debilitating symptoms of the disease at the present, which is why he sought treatment initially.

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 2
TEXTBOOK CHARACTERISTICS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA CLIENT CHARACTERISTICS OBSERVED/DESCRIBED BY CLIENT
1. Associative looseness 1. Not noted
2. Affective flattening 2. Slightly blunted, possibly due to medication
3. Alogia 3. Client stated thoughts were jumbled at times
4. Avolition-apathy 4. Client stated that it is only the thought of seeing his children again that keeps him going. None noted.
5. Anhedonia 5. Client states that is it is hard to find the will to continue living and with the thoughts of dying make it difficult to find joy in life.
5a. Asociality 5a. Afraid to make friends for fear they will die
6. Hallucinations 6. None at the present while on medication
7. Delusions 7. Client states that he hears voices telling him he will die
8. Bizarre behavior 8. Client did not exhibit any bizarre behavior, very pleasant.
(Varcarolis, 2002, p. 533)

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 2
Nursing Interventions For Client
1. Associative looseness: “Tell the client what you do understand and reinforce clear communication and accurate expression of needs, and thoughts.” (Varcarolis, 2002, p. 534)
2. Affective flatness: “All people with schizophrenia are uniquely different and all have unique personal strengths and disease-associated deficits. Ideally, outcomes should reflect enhancing the person’s strengths and minimizing the effects of the client’s deficits.” (Varcarolis, 2002, p. 536)
3,4. Alogia and Anhedonia: Encourage participation in activity groups, (only if client’s anxiety level allows for such participation). Such actions help to: “decrease withdrawal, promote motivation, modify unacceptable aggression and increase social competence.”
(Varcarolis, 2002, p. 540)
“Encourage drawing pictures, reading poetry, and listening to music.” (Varcarolis, 2002, p. 541)
5. Asociality: Encourage client to groom self and give praise. Supportive teaching in regards to the understanding and acceptance of the illness. Encourage group and family therapy.
6. Hallucinations: “Approach client in a nonthreatening and nonjudgmental manner. Maintain eye contact, speak simply in a louder voice than usual, and call the person by name.” (Varcarolis, 2002, p. 541)

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 2
7. Delusions: “Clarify the reality of the client’s experience, and empathize with the client’s apparent experience, the feelings of fear.” (Varcarolis, 2002, p. 542)
8. Bizarre behavior: Ensure the safety of the client. Gently assist client to a less stressful and quiet area. Make sure that there are no objects that the client can hurt themselves or others with. Speak in a calm clear voice and try to bring the client back to reality.

Medical Interventions for Schizophrenia
1. Antipsychotic medication 1. Client is currently on Prolixin 2.5mg T.I.D.
2. Group Therapy 2. Client participates in RT and OT daily
3. Psychotherapy 3. Client meets Psychologist and Psychiatrist regularly in hospital during stay.
4. Client teaching 4. Client receives one on one education on illness with nurse daily.
5. Antianxiety and or antidepressants used concurrently 5. Client receives Ativan 1mg q. h.s.

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PAPER 2
References
Lehne, R. (2004). Pharmacology for Nursing Care. Missouri: Saunders
Varcarolis, E. (2002). Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: A Clinical approach. Pennsylvania: Saunders


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Psychiatric Nursing Patho Paper

Written by kimmel52 on November 8, 2008 – 5:41 am

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

Psychopathology Paper 1
H.F.C.C. Psychiatric Nursing 150
By Nancy Taji

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Diagnosis Bipolar Disorder: “Bipolar disorder is a severe biologic illness characterized by recurrent fluctuations in mood. Typically, patients experience alternating episodes in which mood is abnormally elevated or abnormally depressed-separated by periods in which mood is relatively normal.” (Lehne, 2004, p. 321)
The following is a short synopsis according to the DSM-IV-TR, “Criteria for Bipolar Disorder includes a distinct period of abnormality and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood for at least:
• 4 days for hypomania
• 1 week for mania
During the period of mood disturbance, at least three or more of the flowing symptoms have persisted and have been present to a significant degree:
• Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
• Decreased need for sleep
• More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking
• Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences.” (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000).

Psychodynamics of the Disease: The onset of the disease usually occurs during late adolescence or in the mid twenties. However, the disease has been known to occur up into the fifth decade of life. The mood swings that accompany this disorder are of several types. They are as follows: the Pure Manic Episode, evidenced by hyperactivity, excessive enthusiasm, and flight of ideas, constant wakefulness without sleep,
Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
impairment in normal social functioning usually requiring hospitalization; Hypomanic Episode, evidenced by a milder form of the Pure Mania, without the loss of normal functioning that would require hospitalization; Major Depressive Episode, characterized by depressed mood consisting of symptoms such as anhedonia, avolition, alogia, affective flattening and thoughts of suicide and death; the last episode associated with Bipolar disorders is the Mixed Episode in which, “patients experience symptoms of mania and depression simultaneously. The combination of high energy and depression puts them at significant risk of suicide.” (Lehne, 2004, p. 321)
Case Presentation: A Caucasian woman in her mid twenties presented signs and symptoms of self mutilation with a straight edge razor inflicted gash across her lower abdomen approximately six inches below the umbilicus. The depth of the gash just stopped at the abdominal fascia. The patient was sent from the emergency room to the
psychiatric floor. Upon meeting the patient one day after her admission to E.R., she appeared dressed in pajama bottoms and a t-shirt, shuffling down the hall in her socks. She was holding her abdomen with one hand and appeared in some discomfort. Her black hair was short and disheveled. When the patient arrived at her room she sat down on her bed. She acknowledged with blunted affect that she cannot stop self mutilation, and described how she cut herself through the muscles in her abdomen almost down to the fascia. Her voice was tremulous and fast paced. This could be due to the fact that she had just been given her first dose of Clozaril. She stated that her mouth was dry and that she needed to drink some water. She then went on to say that she was getting very sleepy. The client felt comfortable with the interview.
Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
She shared personal information in regards to being sexually abused by her bother beginning at the age of seven until the age of fifteen. Her brother was two years older than her and died in a automobile accident at the age of eighteen. She went on to say that her mother never knew or acknowledged the sexual abuse and that she could not tell her because the mother idolized the son. The client was receptive to cognitive reframing, however she was very critical of herself and stated that she felt worthless and ashamed. She appeared very tired and stated that she wanted to sleep.

Running head: PSYCHOPAHTOLOGY
Table 1
Textbook characteristics of Bipolar disorder versus client characteristics observed

Textbook Characteristics of Bipolar Disorder
1. Pure Manic Episode
2. Hypomanic Episode
3. Major Depressive Episode-
a.) Affective Flattening
b.) Alogia
c.) Avolition-apathy
d.) Anhedonia
4. Mixed Episode
5. Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder- Patients experience four or Client Characteristics Observed

1. No current symptoms
2. Rapid breathing, rapid speech, however due to medication a client was concurrently exhibiting s
3. lethargy
4. Client acknowledged sadness/ worthlessness
a.) Facial expression flat
b.) Thoughts of dying, hard to focus
c.) Hair/clothes unkempt
d.) Expressed no interest in children or own

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Client’s Symptoms
1. Hypomania

2. Depression
a.) Affective Flattening
b.) Alogia
c.) Avolition & Apathy
d.) Anhedonia
3. Mixed Episode
4. Rapid Cycling

(Varcarolis, 2004, p. 485)

Nursing Interventions
1. Observe the client every 15 minutes while suicidal, remove all dangerous, sharp objects from room.
2. Reinforce that she is worth while,
a.) Assist the client in evaluating the positive as well as the negative aspects of her life
b.) Encourage the appropriate expression of angry feelings.
c.) Schedule regular periods of time throughout the day for recreational/occupational therapy, encourage client to groom self, offer praise for completing grooming.
d.) Ensure client’s participation in taking mood stabilizing medications. Watch client swallow medication.
3. Engage client in interpersonal therapies, cognitive-behavioral therapy,
4. Encourage client to attend group therapy, and journal episodes.
Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Table 2
Medical Interventions, Bipolar Disorder
1. Drug therapy using
a.) Mood stabilizer
b.) Antidepressants
c.) Antipsychotics
2. Education and Psychotherapy
3. ECT
(Varcarolis, 2002, p. 483)

Clients Medical Interventions
1. Drug therapy includes
a.) Lithium 300mg every h.s.
b.) Not taking any
c.) Clozaril
2. Client is receiving psychotherapy, family counseling, group therapy while in hospital, and cognitive restructuring.
3. None

Running head: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
References
Lehne, R. (2004). Pharmacology for Nursing Care. Missouri: Saunders
Varcarolis, E. (2002). Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: A Clinical
Approach. Pennsylvania: Saunders


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Nursing Lecture on Fluid and Electrolytes

Written by kimmel52 on November 8, 2008 – 5:23 am

Wednesday continuing on fluids and e-lytes
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis

I. Respiratory Acidosis

A. Signs and symptoms
a. Acidosis signifies that H+ ions are prevalent and multiplying.
b. There are several reasons that H+ ions are present. Let us look at the bicarbonate ion, H2Co3. The bicarbonate ion is a very good buffer. It allows enzymatic reactions to take place without drastically altering the pH of the blood. Our blood must remain at a pH of between 7.35-7.45

2. Let’s take a look at what constitutes respiratory acidosis given a few scenarios
A. pH = 7.2
PCO2 = 25
HCO3- = 15

Here are the normals

pH = 7.35-7.45
pCO2 = 35-45 mm/hg
HCO3 – = 20-30 mmol/L

Now here’s how we do this
1. First look at the pH. Notice that it is 7.2 which is in the acidic range for the blood.
2. Now look at the pCO2, it is in the abnormal range. It is below the normal range. This means that the less pressure in the respiratory system the less CO2 present and more O2. But as the pressure decreases beyond the normal range we have a alkaline situation. This doesn’t match our pH. Could it be that the respiratory system is trying to compensate for the acidic situation occurring? Yes.
3. Now look at the bicarb- ion, it is in the abnormal range below the base normal of 20 mmol/dl. What does this mean? Well, it means that as the bicarbonate ion decreases the H+ proton increases.
4. Now let’s see what we have. What two values agree with each other? The answer to that would be the Acidic pH and the Acidic bicarbonate ion. Since they are both acidic, the term of the system is metabolic acidosis, and the respiratory system is trying to compensate.
5. So the system is partially compensated.
Let’s take a look at what happens in a system that is under Respiratory Alkalosis

pH [The body is in a state of alkalosis]

7.50 The body is
[trying to get back to normal]

7.47
[back to normal]

7.45

pCO2 [below normal]
alkaline

30mm hg [below normal]
alkaline

30mm hg [below normal]
alkaline

30mm hg

HCO3-
[normal range]

20 mmols/L
[below normal] becoming acidic

18 mmols/L
[farther below normal]more acidic

16 mmols/L
What’s
happening Respiratory Alkalosis
uncompensated Respiratory Alkalosis

Partially compensated We are still in respiratory alkalosis, however, the kidneys have Fully compensated by bringing the pH back to normal by releasing more H+ ions
The less CO2 in the respiratory system, the more alkaline it becomes. Or in other words the more HCO3- that is generated.

1. pH = 7.17

pCO2 = 98 mm hg

HCO3- = 38 mmols/L

Let’s see what’s happening here. First of all the pH is below normal which means that it is in the Acidic range.
Next, we look at the pressure in the lungs. We see that the pressure is very high. We know that as the pressure of CO2 increases, that it means that CO2 is multiplying in the lungs and creating a higher pressure. The more CO2 that we have, the more H2CO3 [carbonic acid] that is going to be made. Look at the bicarb ion. This is also elevated. However, if the bicarb ion[HCO3-] is elevated, this means that more base is being made. More base is being made in response to the acidic state of the body. So what is happening, is that the body is in Respiratory Acidosis, and the kidneys are trying to hang on to the bicarb ion to counter act the acid environment.


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Patho Paper on CAD

Written by kimmel52 on November 8, 2008 – 12:31 am

Nursing students! Don’t fail out of nursing school because you can’t write a patho paper. Nursing students are faced with countless theory topics that vary in difficulty. Many nursing research papers and health care topics require a lot of research and case study analysis. Do you need a helping hand that will give merit to your nursing research? For only some of the lowest prices online our library features essay nursing samples and health care research papers and essays. Each nursing research paper comes with a free bibliography and free research paper sources. It is also professionally written by one of our very own nursing researchers and paper writers. Every nursing paper in our library is available for delivery TODAY!
Cheaper than any other place on the internet, and guess what, they are all A+ papers containing in excess of 1200 words or more.  These are for study use only, not to be copied. These are intended to help the nursing student grasp the format and flow of writing their own paper.

Pathophysiology Paper One
Disorder: Coronary Artery Disease
Nursing 221 Medical/Surgical

Excerpt:

Diagnoses: “Coronary artery disease (CAD), and abnormal condition that may affect the heart’s arteries and produce various pathologic effects, especially the reduced flow of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium. The most common kind of coronary artery disease is coronary atherosclerosis.” (Mosby’s Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 2002, p.434)
Risk Factors: “Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of CAD and is linked to may risk factors- primarily elevated serum cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and cigarette smoking. Blood levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins have been associated with increased risk of CAD. Hypertension places chronic stress on the blood vessels and may initiate plaque deposition. Other risk factors include heredity, obesity, lack of physical activity, stress and diabetes mellitus.” (Sommers, M., Johnson, S., 2002, p.265)
The client a ninety two year old women, has been diagnosed upon admission with chronic atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate.
MCj04395990000[1]
Nursing Patho Paper on Coronary Artery Disease in APA Format (more) (NEW)$39.99 + $7S&H



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Nursing Pathophysiology Term Paper 1st Year

Written by kimmel52 on November 8, 2008 – 12:25 am

Review Term Papers on Nursing to help you with writing your own. See how APA format is used, read how a paper is supposed to flow. See how the data is organized. These papers will help you earn an A+.

You have nothing to lose – Pick up the phone and call now! 313-575-1214

Excerpt from a term paper.
Pathophysiology Paper
Disorder: Coronary Artery Disease
First Year Nursing School Medical/Surgical

Diagnoses: “Coronary artery disease (CAD), and abnormal condition that may affect the heart’s arteries and produce various pathologic effects, especially the reduced flow of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium. The most common kind of coronary artery disease is coronary atherosclerosis.” (Mosby’s Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 2002, p.434)
Risk Factors: “Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of CAD and is linked to may risk factors- primarily elevated serum cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and cigarette smoking. Blood levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins have been associated with increased risk of CAD. Hypertension places chronic stress on the blood vessels and may initiate plaque deposition. Other risk factors include heredity, obesity, lack of physical activity, stress and diabetes mellitus.” (Sommers, M., Johnson, S., 2002, p.265)
The client has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high cholesterol…….

CBR001265


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Student Nurse’s Quote For the Day

Written by kimmel52 on September 20, 2008 – 11:00 pm

When you feel like giving up, stop to remember what you have accomplished and don’t look back.


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Types of Nursing Scholarships Available

Written by kimmel52 on March 22, 2008 – 2:12 am

Are you considering a nursing school scholarship? Great! Then, this is your first step to achieving your goal. Find out what types of scholarships are out there. The internet is a good place to start. The information highway is certainly a cornucopia of information. But be careful to review where certain websites get their information. Not everything you read on the internet is a fact. However, it is still a good place to begin to get a feeling for what types of scholarships are out there. Many people that are going into the nursing field are older than those who attended nursing school twenty or thirty years ago. With the older group of students, many feel that they just don’t qualify for scholarships. Actually the reverse is true. There are many scholarships out there for people that are older. Some scholarships are even bestowed on some just because of their age. This is indeed a wonderful country that we live in. The careful planner can certainly plan their finances for nursing school without having to pay anything back when they graduate, or very little if that. Before we look at some of the nursing scholarships that are out there, let us first look at the professional nursing organizations that participate in many of the scholarships offered, and serve as excellent reliable resources for the pre-student nurse, the student nurse, and the graduate nurse. Here is a list of the following nursing organizations, you may want to take some time later and look into the background of each of these organizations. You will find it very enlightening and encouraging.

You may not consider yourself eligible, but you will be surprised to find that there are nursing scholarships out there that are just for you. When considering a career in nursing, most of seek out financial aid only to find the resulting funds are usually never sufficient. This is the reason that scholarships were created. You have a specific ethnicity that predisposes you to a number of scholarships. Many people wonder if you get a nursing scholarship, can you apply for another. The answer is yes, you can apply for as many scholarships as you want. Whether or not you will get them depends on a number of factors. Some of which are, have you filled out the proper forms, submitted the correct documents, and have the necessary qualifications. These are all factors which must be looked at carefully when applying for a nursing scholarship. If you follow to the letter all of the requirements then you should have no trouble obtaining a scholarship for nursing school.

1. American Nurses Association or (ANA), is the nationally known professional organization for nurses in America. The functions of the American Nurses Association are many. Their goals are to foster high standards of practice, engage in lobbying in Congress and the House of Representatives on behalf of Nurses, to help pass laws that sustain and promote the respect, pay, retirement, benefits, responsibilities, and proper treatment of nurses in America. This is no small task. Which is why all nurses are encouraged to join the American Nurses Association. By doing so, each nurse is helping not only their own futures but futures of other nurses to come. The American Nurses Association also gives scholarships You may find them on the internet at their web address: www.ana.org You can find much up to date and reliable information on the nursing scholarships that are offered, as well as a lot of other pertinent information that will be useful in deciding on a career in nursing.

2. National Student Nurses Association, (NSNA)
This particular organization represents all nursing students from those in the Associate Degreed Nurse Program all the way to those Nurses who are obtaining their Doctorate in Philosophy. This is the type of nursing organization that is the grass roots of nursing organizations. What that means is, that the National Student Nurses Association is a integral part of the student nurses journey through nursing school. At every nursing school there will be flyers and on campus activities sponsored by the National Student Nurses Association. Be sure to look closely at all of the paper work on the desk for students in the nursing office, so you won’t miss the scholarships that this organization offers. The smell of fresh baked cookies and brownies are usually always a sight for sore eyes when walking into the nursing division. You can’t help but not see the large banner, entitled “National Student Nurses Associations Bake Sale”. It is these same bake sales that raise money for scholarships for those in need. Way to go NSNA. They also have a web site. Their web address is: www.nsna.org Check it out to find out about scholarships.

Here are a couple of other organizations that you might want to check out as well: 3. National League for Nursing

4. American Association of Colleges of Nursing

5. International Council of Nurses

6. Sigma Theta Tau International

7. Specialty Nursing Organizations


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